B is incorrect because Atlantic eels should show some resistance since the Atlantic eel have developed in the presence of krait toxin. → Problem Solving Methods are various methods used to solve the problem. However, one limitation of this study and all think-aloud studies is that it is not possible to analyze what students may have been thinking but did not state. Describe the general steps of the scientific method. However, problem solving is not intuitive to students, and these skills typically are not explicitly taught in the classroom (Nehm, 2010; Hoskinson et al., 2013). Students did not receive extra credit if we judged their documentation to be insufficient. In a one-on-one meeting, we discussed a few written think-alouds. On data analysis, three problems were excluded, because most students were confused by the wording or visual representations or were able to solve the problem correctly with a superficial strategy. Supplemental Resources Introductory undergraduate biology courses focus on low-level cognitive skills, Understanding undergraduates’ problem-solving processes, Biology majors’ knowledge and misconceptions of natural selection, What do experts and novices “see” in evolutionary problems, Elements of a theory of human problem solving, Cognitive strategies: good strategy users coordinate metacognition and knowledge, Pressley M, Goodchild F, Fleet J, Zajchowski R, Evans ED, The challenges of classroom strategy instruction, Singer SR, Nielsen NR, Schweingburger HACommittee on the Status, Contributions, and Future Directions of Discipline-Based Education Research, Developing problem-solving skills of students taking introductory physics via Web-based tutorials. Recognize the complex and multi-faceted nature of the scientific process. Misunderstanding Content was exhibited when students stated incorrect facts from their long-term memory, made false connections between the material presented and biology concepts, or showed gaps in their understanding of a concept. Specifically, Analyzing Domain-Specific Visual Representations, Checking, and Recalling were described in Bloom’s taxonomy (Anderson and Krathwohl, 2001). Problem-based learning (PBL) is an exciting way to learn biology and is readily incorporated into large classes in a lecture hall environment. In solving domain-specific problems, at some point, the solver has to understand the particulars of a domain to reach a legitimate solution (reviewed in Pressley et al., 1987; Bassok and Novick, 2012). One of the authors (P.P.L.) We designed several multiple-choice problems and administered them on four exams. Then one author (either L.B.P. Figure 2 shows a typical example of a student written think-aloud. A summary of all problems, including a description, the preliminary Bloom’s ranking, and the faculty consensus Bloom’s ranking, is provided in Table 1. We trained students to produce written descriptions of how they solved the problem, and this allowed us to systematically investigate their problem-solving procedures. Chi and colleagues (1981) compared the classification of physics problems by advanced physics PhD students (i.e., experts) and undergraduates who had just completed a semester of mechanics (i.e., novices), identifying fundamental differences. Students also misread the prompt or the multiple-choice options, and we termed this Misreading. Despite this limitation, we were able to identify a range of problem-solving procedures and errors that inform teaching and learning. Hybrid procedures show students assessing multiple-choice options with limited and superficial references to biology content knowledge. In our data set, we identified six domain-specific problem-solving procedures practiced by students (Table 2). Categories are organized into the themes of domain-general, hybrid, and domain-specific problem solving (Supplemental Table S1). Taken together, these studies established that experts tend to classify problems based on deep, conceptual features, while novices classify problems based on superficial features that are irrelevant to the solution. We collected 1087 written think-alouds from 140 students (63% of course enrollment, n = 222) for 13 problems. This research points to the importance of studying variations in problem solving within novice populations. Identify solutions. Researchers and practitioners also need to discover how students develop the ability to use scientific practices. Our research presents a categorization of problem-solving procedures that faculty can use in their teaching. When students’ words led us to believe that they did not examine the data, we assigned the category Disregarding Evidence. Applying lessons from 30 years of physics education research, Children’s metacognition about reading—issues in definition, measurement, and instruction, Toward a design theory of problem solving, Investigating the thinking processes of eighth grade writers during the composition of a scientific laboratory report, Students’ usability evaluation of a Web-based tutorial program for college biology problem solving, Patterns of multiple representation use by experts and novices during physics problem solving, The development, theory, and application of a cognitive-network model of prediction problem solving in biology, Supporting learning of variable control in a computer-based biology environment: effects of prompting college students to reflect on their own thinking, Momsen J, Offerdahl E, Kryjevskaia M, Montplaisir L, Anderson E, Grosz N, Using assessments to investigate and compare the nature of learning in undergraduate science courses, Just the facts? These procedures also could be used in other domains. STEM Concept Videos Second, we studied a larger population of students, which allowed us to use both qualitative and quantitative methods. With our focus on procedural knowledge, we intentionally avoided an analysis of students’ declarative knowledge. Future studies could be done to understand whether different ways of asking students to solve a problem at the same Bloom’s level could stimulate students to use different procedures. Brian (Table 4B) took an approach that included domain-general and hybrid procedures. Despite the broad applicability of these domain-general problem-solving approaches, subsequent research has shown that the strongest problem-solving approaches derive from deep knowledge of a domain (Newell and Simon, 1972; Chi et al., 1981; Pressley et al., 1987). However, students’ extensive use of other domain-general/hybrid categories, namely Recognizing, is disturbing. To what extent do students use domain-general and domain-specific procedures when solving lower-order versus higher-order problems? Recalling also was used relatively frequently for lower-order problems (n = 207), as were Analyzing Domain-Specific Visual Representations, Predicting, and Recalling for higher-order problems (n = 120, n = 106, and n = 107, respectively).